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- Exterior Ballistics...
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- Information Sources...

AERODYNAMIC DATA FOR SPINNING PROJECTILES, H. P. Hitchcock, BRL Report number 620, October 1947, Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, August 1976, [800469]* -- Not much useful information here, but it does give a reference for the atmospheric conditions for the standard Army Metro

THE AERODYNAMICS OF A SPINNING SHELL, R. H. Fowler, E. G. Gallop, C. N. H. Lock, and H. W. Richmond, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A., Volume 221, March 1921, pp 295. -- One of the original works on bullet stabilization

AN ALTERNATIVE FORM OF THE MODIFIED POINT-MASS EQUATION OF MOTION, James W. Bradley, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, November 1990, BRL-MR-3875.

BODY ALONE AERODYNAMICS OF GUIDED AND UNGUIDED PROJECTILES AT SUBSONIC, TRANSONIC AND SUPERSONIC MACH NUMBERS, Frank G. Moore, Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren, Virginia, November 1972, [AD-754 098]*

THE EFFECT OF WIND ON FLAT-FIRE TRAJECTORIES, Robert L. McCoy, BRL Report Number 1900, Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, August 1976, [ADB012872]* -- Derivation of the wind (time delay) formula.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR A MODIFIED POINT MASS TRAJECTORY, R. F. Lieske, M. L. Reiter, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, March 1966, Report No. 1314.

ESTIMATION OF THE STATIC AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ORDNANCE PROJECTILES AT SUPERSONIC SPEEDS, Robert L. McCoy, Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1973, [AD-771 148]* -- Interesting work on modeling the aerodynamic coefficients of bullets

EVERYDAY BALLISTICS, Charles S. Cummings, 2nd, Stackpole & Heck, Inc., New York 1950. -- Very basic ballistics book. Answers many of the more common questions. Check your local library. I know the University of California has a few copies at various locations.

EXTERIOR BALLISTICS, McShane, Kelley and Reno, Univeristy of Denver Press, 1953. -- Hard to find a copy for sale, but most university libraries that I have checked have copies. Treatment is at the calculus level.

EXTERIOR BALLISTICS OF SMALL ARMS PROJECTILES, E. D. Lowry, Research Dept., Winchester-Western Division, Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, May 4, 1965. -- Has some useful formulas and values for various drag functions as a function of velocity.

HANDBOOK FOR SHOOTERS & RELOADERS, volumes I and II, P. O. Ackley, Plaza Publishing, 1848 West 2300 South, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1962. -- Check your local gun shop -- it's still in print. A wealth of information on wildcat reloading.

HATCHER'S NOTEBOOK, Julian S. Hatcher, Major General, USA, retired, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Second printing, 1966. -- Articles on many different subjects -- some interesting formulas. It is still in print and available directly from Stackpole.

MAGNUS CHARACTERISTICS OF ARBITRARY ROTATING BODIES, I. D. Jacobson, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, AGARDograph number 171, 1973. -- Hard to find. Compares some different approaches to calculating magnus coefficients.

MATHEMATICS FOR EXTERIOR BALLISTICS, Gilbert Ames Bliss, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, New York, 1944. -- A little more mathematical than most. It has a derivation of the Siacci methods and the differential equations of motion.

"MC DRAG" - A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR ESTIMATING THE DRAG COEFFICIENTS OF PROJECTILES, Robert L. McCoy, Technical Report ARBRL-TR-02293, February 1981, [ADA098110]* -- More on estimating the drag coefficient for boattail and flat base projectiles. Includes a code listing and sample runs.

METHODS FOR COMPUTING DRAG COEFFICIENTS FROM BALLISTIC RANGE DATA USING THE APL SYSTEM, M. Cloutier, Centre de Recherches Pour la Defense, Defence Research Establishment, Valcartier, September 1972, [DRFV-TN-2027/72] -- Methods for calculating drag coefficients from range data.

METHODS IN EXTERIOR BALLISTICS, Forest Ray Moulton, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, New York, 1962. -- More calculus on trajectories. Quite a bit on rotating projectiles.

MODIFIED POINT MASS TRAJECTORY SIMULATION FOR BASE-BURN PROJECTILES, R. F. Lieske, J. E. Danberg, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, March 1992, [AD-A248 292]*

SIERRA RIFLE RELOADING MANUAL, 3rd EDITION, Sierra Bullets, L.P., 1989. -- Do I really need to say anything?

A SIX-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM DIGITAL COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR TRAJECTORY SIMULATION, Louis D. Duncan and Bernard F. Engebos, Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, October 1967, [AD664116]* -- A computer program based on the equations in the next citation.

SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM DIGITAL SIMULATION MODEL FOR UNGUIDED FIN-STABILIZED ROCKETS, Louis D. Duncan and Ronald J. Ensey, US Army Electronics Research & Development Activity, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, November 1964, [ADA452106]* -- General derivation of the equations of motion for a spinning (along three axes) projectile.

"SPINNER" - A Computer Program for Predicting the Aerodynamic Coeficients of Spin Stabilized Projectiles, Robert H. Whyte, General Electric Company, August 1969, Obtained from GE. -- Polynomial approximations for the aerodynamic coefficients.

SPIN-73 An Updated Version of the Spinnner Computer Program, Robert H. Whyte, Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, New Jersey, November 1973, [AD915628]* -- Just as it says, an updated version using higher order polynomials. WARNING: The copies obtained from DTIC, NTIS and Picatinny have copy errors in them. Not all of the coefficients are available! If anybody has a copy of the program, please let me know.

USE OF THE MAGNUS FORCE IN THE MODIFIED POINT MASS TRAJECTORY MODEL, Robert F. Lieske, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, October 1990, [AD-A228 194]*

GUN PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY, Editied by Ludwig Stiefel, (Progress in Astronautics And Aeronautics Vol. #109, Martin Summerfield: Series editor in chief 1988.

INTERNAL BALLISTICS, ed. Colonel F. R. W. Hunt, Philosophical Library, Inc., 15 East 40th Street, New York, NY, 1951.

INTERIOR BALLISTICS MODELING APPLIED TO SMALL ARMS SYSTEMS, Sidney Goldstein, US Army Armament Research and Development Command, Fire Control and Small Caliber Weapon Systems Laboratory, Dover, NJ, 1979, Technical Report ARSCD-TR-79001 [ADA076175]**

INTERIOR BALLISTICS OF GUNS, ed. Herman Krier and Martin Summerfield, Volume 66, PROGRESS IN ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1979.

INTERNAL BALLISTICS OF SOLID-FUEL ROCKETS, R. N. Winpress, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1950

THEORY OF THE INTERIOR BALLISTICS OF GUNS, J. Corner, M.A., Ph.D., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1950.

THE THERMODYNAMICS OF FIREARMS, Clark Shove Robinson, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1943

U.S. STANDARD ATMOSPHERE, 1962, National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration. -- Includes derivation of the ICAO standard atmosphere and tables with density values as a function of altitude.

Aside from public and university libraries, the following have been very useful in obtaining many of documents listed above.

NTIS (National Technical Information Service), U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia, 22151. (703) 487-4650.

DTIC (Defense Technical Information Center), DTIC Customer Service Help Desk, Special Programs Branch (DTIC-BLS), 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 0944, Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-6218, Commercial (703) 767-8222 / DSN 427-8222, 1-800-CAL-DTIC (225-3842), [menu selection 0].Last updated 16 May 2001 by Cybersniper

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